Hajm:
AAA
Rang: CCC
Rasmlar: YoqishO'chirish
Oddiy ko'rinish
Qidirish
Bizning manzil:
100011, Toshkent shahri, Xadra mavzesi, 33
Ishonch telefonlari:
+ (998 71) 232-50-50
Array
(
    [0] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Asosiy
            [LINK] => /uz/index.php
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 0
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 1
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [1] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Agentlik haqida
            [LINK] => /uz/about/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 1
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 1
            [IS_PARENT] => 1
        )

    [2] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Agentlik haqida
            [LINK] => /uz/about/agentlik-haqida
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 0
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [3] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Agentlik tuzilmasi
            [LINK] => /uz/about/agentlik-tuzilmasi/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 1
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [4] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Rahbariyat
            [LINK] => /uz/about/rahbariyat/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 2
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [5] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Agentlik bo'limlari
            [LINK] => /uz/about/agentlik-b-limlari/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 3
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [6] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => «IP CENTER» o'quv markazi
            [LINK] => /uz/about/ip-center-o-quv-markazi/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 4
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [7] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Ilmiy texnik kengash
            [LINK] => /uz/about/ilmiy-texnik-kengash/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 5
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [8] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Apellyatsiya kengashi
            [LINK] => /uz/about/apellyatsiya-kengashi/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 6
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [9] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Jamoatchilik kengashi
            [LINK] => /uz/about/jamoatchilik-kengashi
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 7
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [10] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Tadbirlar (Ma'ruzalar)
            [LINK] => /uz/about/tadbirlar-va-ma-ruzalar
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 8
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [11] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Davlat patent fondi
            [LINK] => /uz/about/davlat-patent-fondi/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 9
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [12] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Hizmatlar uchun to'lov rekvizitlari
            [LINK] => /uz/about/hizmatlar-uchun-tolov-rekvizitlari/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 10
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [13] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Bo’sh ish o'rinlari
            [LINK] => /uz/about/bosh-ish-orinlari/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 11
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [14] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Sayt xaritasi
            [LINK] => /uz/about/sayt-xaritasi
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 12
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [15] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Faoliyat
            [LINK] => /uz/services/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 2
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 1
            [IS_PARENT] => 1
        )

    [16] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Intellektual mulk 
            [LINK] => /uz/services/intellektual-mulk-/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 0
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [17] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Patent vakillari
            [LINK] => /uz/services/patent-vakillari/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 1
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [18] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Xalqaro hamkorlik
            [LINK] => /uz/services/idoralararo-hamkorlik/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 2
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [19] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Korrupsiyaga qarshi kurash
            [LINK] => /uz/services/korrupsiyaga-qarshi-kurash
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 3
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [20] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Sud amaliyoti 
            [LINK] => /uz/services/sud-amaliyoti-/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 4
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [21] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Statistik va tahliliy ma’lumotlar
            [LINK] => /uz/services/statistik-malumotlar/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 5
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [22] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => E'lonlar va tenderlar
            [LINK] => /uz/services/e-lonlar-va-tenderlar/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 6
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [23] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => TIQQM
            [LINK] => http://ipcenter.uz/site/map
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => Z
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 7
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [24] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Litsenziyalash
            [LINK] => /uz/services/lisenziyalash/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 8
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [25] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Apellyatsiya kengashi  qarorlari
            [LINK] => /uz/services/apellyatsiya-kengashi-qarorlari/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 9
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [26] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Xalqaro tashkilotlar
            [LINK] => /uz/services/halqaro-tashkilotlar/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 10
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [27] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Elektron-hukumat
            [LINK] => /uz/services/elektron-xukumat/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 11
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [28] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Fuqarolar murojaati
            [LINK] => /uz/services/fuqarolar-murojaati/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 12
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [29] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Ochiq ma'lumotlar
            [LINK] => https://data.gov.uz/uz/search/view?q=&sphere=&authoritie=75
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => Z
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => U
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 13
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [30] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Davlat xizmatlari
            [LINK] => /uz/services/davlat-xizmatlari
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 14
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [31] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Me'yoriy huquqiy hujjatlar
            [LINK] => /uz/regulatory/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 3
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 1
            [IS_PARENT] => 1
        )

    [32] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Xalqaro me'yoriy huquqiy hujjatlar
            [LINK] => /uz/regulatory/xalqaro-me-yoriy-huquqiy-hujjatlar
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 0
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [33] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => O'zbekiston Respublikasi qonunlari
            [LINK] => /uz/regulatory/qonunlar-va-qarorlar/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 1
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [34] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => O'zbekiston Respublikasi Prezidentining qaror va farmonlari
            [LINK] => /uz/regulatory/o-zbekiston-respublikasi-prezidenti-qaror-va-farmonlari
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 2
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [35] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => O'zbekiston Respublikasi Vazirlar Mahkamasining qarorlari
            [LINK] => /uz/regulatory/o-zbekiston-respublikasi-vazirlar-mahkamasining-qarorlari
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 3
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [36] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Sohaga oid hujjatlar
            [LINK] => /uz/regulatory/sohaga-oid-hujjatlar/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 4
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [37] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => O'z kuchini yo'qotgan hujjatlar
            [LINK] => /uz/regulatory/oz-kuchini-yoqotgan-hujjatlar/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 5
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [38] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Ishlab chiqilayotgan qonun hujjatlari loyihalari
            [LINK] => /uz/regulatory/ishlab-chiqilayotgan-qonun-hujjatlari-loyihalari/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 6
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [39] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Tariflar va bojlar
            [LINK] => /uz/regulatory/tariflar-va-bojlar
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 7
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [40] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Xizmatlar
            [LINK] => /uz/gosserv/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 4
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 1
            [IS_PARENT] => 1
        )

    [41] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Ixtirolar
            [LINK] => /uz/gosserv/402/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                    [0] => 402/
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 0
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                    [FROM_IBLOCK] => 1
                    [IS_PARENT] => 
                    [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 1
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [42] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => EHM uchun dasturlar va ma'lumotlar bazasi
            [LINK] => /uz/gosserv/399/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                    [0] => 399/
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 1
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                    [FROM_IBLOCK] => 1
                    [IS_PARENT] => 
                    [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 1
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [43] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Foydali modellar
            [LINK] => /uz/gosserv/410/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                    [0] => 410/
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 2
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                    [FROM_IBLOCK] => 1
                    [IS_PARENT] => 
                    [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 1
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [44] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Integral mikrosxemalar topologiyalari
            [LINK] => /uz/gosserv/405/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                    [0] => 405/
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 3
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                    [FROM_IBLOCK] => 1
                    [IS_PARENT] => 
                    [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 1
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [45] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Sanoat na'munalari
            [LINK] => /uz/gosserv/409/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                    [0] => 409/
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 4
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                    [FROM_IBLOCK] => 1
                    [IS_PARENT] => 
                    [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 1
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [46] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Seleksiya yutuqlari
            [LINK] => /uz/gosserv/408/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                    [0] => 408/
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 5
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                    [FROM_IBLOCK] => 1
                    [IS_PARENT] => 
                    [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 1
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [47] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Tovar belgilari, xizmat ko'rsatish belgilari
            [LINK] => /uz/gosserv/407/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                    [0] => 407/
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 6
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                    [FROM_IBLOCK] => 1
                    [IS_PARENT] => 
                    [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 1
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [48] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Tovar kelib chiqqan joy nomi
            [LINK] => /uz/gosserv/433/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                    [0] => 433/
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 7
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                    [FROM_IBLOCK] => 1
                    [IS_PARENT] => 
                    [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 1
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [49] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Bog'lanish
            [LINK] => /uz/contacts/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 5
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 1
            [IS_PARENT] => 1
        )

    [50] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Manzil
            [LINK] => /uz/contacts/manzil/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 0
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [51] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => O'tish sxemasi
            [LINK] => /uz/contacts/otish-sxemasi/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 1
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [52] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Ishonch telefoni
            [LINK] => /uz/feedback/ishonch-telefonlari/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 2
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [53] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Yagona telefon xizmati
            [LINK] => /uz/feedback/yagona-telefon-xizmati/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 3
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [54] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Murojaatlar statistikasi
            [LINK] => /uz/feedback/murojaatlar-statistikasi/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 4
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [55] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Apelyatsiyani ko'rib chiqish tartibi
            [LINK] => /uz/feedback/apellyatsiyani-ko-rib-chiqish-tartibi
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 5
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [56] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Jismоniy vа yuridik shахslаrni qаbul qilish jadvali
            [LINK] => /uz/feedback/jismoniy-va-yuridik-shakhslarni-qabul-qilish-jadvali/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 6
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [57] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Agentlikka murojaat yuborish
            [LINK] => https://pm.gov.uz/oz#/authorities/4/35/_apply 
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => Z
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 7
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [58] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Axborot xizmati
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 6
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 1
            [IS_PARENT] => 1
        )

    [59] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Rahbariyatning chiqish va bayonnomalari
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/rahbariyatning-chiqish-va-bayonnomalari/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 0
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [60] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Media reja va Press-relizlar
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/media-reja/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 1
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [61] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => E’lonlar, konkurslar va tenderlar
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/elonlar-konkurslar-va-tenderlar/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 2
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [62] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => OAV vakillarini akkreditasiyadan o’tkazish
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/oav-vakillarini-akkreditasiyadan-o-tkazish
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 3
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [63] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Agentlik nashrlari
            [LINK] => /uz/nashrlar/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 4
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [64] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Foto va video galereya
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/foto-va-video-galereya/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 5
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [65] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Axborot xizmati bilan bog’lanish
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/axborot-xizmati-bilan-bog-lanish/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 6
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [66] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Agentlik faoliyatiga doir idoraviy hujjatlar
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/agentlik-faoliyatiga-doir-idoraviy-hujjatlar
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 7
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [67] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => So'ragan edingiz
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/so-ragan-edingiz
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 8
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

)


Oʼzbekiston Respublikasi Vazirlar Mahkamasining 2020 yil 23 martdagi “Koronavirus infeksiyasi tarqalishiga qarshi qoʼshimcha chora-tadbirlar toʼgʼrisida”gi qaroriga muvofiq Аdliya vazirligi huzuridagi Intellektual mulk agentligi xodimlari masofadan turib ishni tashkil etishgan. Agentlikka murojaat qiluvchi fuqarolar kerakli bo’limni tanlab bog’lanishlari mumkin.

Dunyoni o’zgartirgan ixtirolar (1-qism)

Dunyoni o’zgartirgan ixtirolar (1-qism)

Ixtirosiz taraqqiyotni tasavvur etib bo’lmaydi. Zamonaviy olamni texnologiyalar dunyosi deb atash mumkin, ammo bu yo'l bosib o’tilguncha ancha mashaqqat chekildi. Hozirgi kunga kelib har kuni kashfiyotlar qilish mumkin bo’lgan ko'plab laboratoriyalar mavjud, ammo shunday ixtirolar borki, ular bir necha asr tarixga ega bo’lib, zamonaviy ilm-fanning yadrosi hisoblanadi. Zamonaviy kashfiyotlarning deyarli barchasi avvalgi ixtirolarga asoslangan. Shuning uchun texnologiyalar asriga poydevor qo'ygan ixtirolar nechog'li sodda bo'lishiga qaramay muhim ahamiyatga ega. Ular bilan tanishish orqali taraqqiyot debochasi bo’lgan mazkur qurilmalar o’z ahamiyatini yo’qotmaganiga guvoh bo’lamiz.

G'ildirak

G'ildirak odamlarning eng qadimgi ixtirolaridan biridir. U manzilimizni yaqin qilishga imkon beradigan, shu bilan birga yuzlab yillar oldin ko’plab kashfiyotlarga turtki bergan vositadir.


Ayrim manbalarda g'ildirak 3000 yil oldin kulollar tomonidan ixtiro qilingan va turli xil yuklarni tashishda foydalanilgan deyiladi.

Tegirmonning suv g'ildiragidan tortib to murakkab qurilmalargacha o'n minglab ixtirolar g'ildirakdan ilhomlanib yaratilgan bo’lib, bu qadimgi madaniyat turi murakkab mashinalarni yaratishga imkon berdi. Ko'p zamonaviy texnologiyalar sentrifugalar, elektr motorlari, ichki yonish dvigatellari, reaktiv dvigatellar, elektr stansiyalari va boshqalar g'ildirak asosini o’zida mujassam etadi.

Qog'oz

Eng buyuk kashfiyotlaridan biri qog’oz asrlar davomida tasavvurga sigʼmas darajada insoniyat tamadduniga keskin burilish yasadi, mislsiz kashfiyotlarga sababchi boʼldi.Qog'ozga o'xshash materiallarni, masalan, papirus, qayin po'stlog'i, pergament va boshqalarni tayyorlash texnologiyasi "klassik qog'oz" paydo bo'lishidan ancha oldin ma'lum bo'lgan.


Dastlab katta o'lchamdagi "klassik" qog'oz milodiy 105 yilda xitoylik Tsay Lun tomonidan  yaratilgan.

Xitoyda Tsay Lundan oldin qog'ozga o'xshash materiallar bambuk, ipak qurti pillasidan tayyorlangan. Qadimgi hindular yomg'irdan keyin suv havzasida yirik o'txo’r hayvonlar, masalan, fillar go’ngidan qog'ozga o'xshash materiallar varaqasini hosil bo'lishining tabiiy jarayoniga guvoh bo’lishgan. Hanuzgacha bu usuldan foydalanib qog'oz ishlab chiqaradigan fabrikalar Tailandda mavjud.

Xitoyda qogʼozning kashf etilishi va ishlab chiqarila boshlanishi dunyo miqyosida kitob yaratilishining tez surʼatlar bilan rivojlanishiga turtki boʼldi. Xitoyliklar serdaromad soha hisoblangan qogʼoz ishlab chiqarishni qanchalik sir tutmasinlar, Samarqandda ham Xitoy qogʼozi singari sifatga ega mahsulot tayyorlana boshlandi. Chunki Samarqandda qogʼoz ishlab chiqarish uchun kerakli boʼlgan xomashyoning barcha turlari - ipak, paxta, kanop, qamish, poxol, tut novdasi poʼsti koʼp edi. Shu tariqa Samarqand qogʼozining dovrugʼi qisqa vaqt ichida dunyoga taraldi.

Biroq, bambuk og'ir, ipak esa qimmat edi. Bunday tolalardan tayyorlangan qog'oz osongina ho'l va mo'rt bo'lar edi. Tsay Lun sifatli qog'oz yaratish usulini topdi. Izlanishlar samarasiz bo’lmadi. Yupqa, ammo chidamli materialdan yasalgan ari uyalari u qidirayotgan narsaga mos edi. Qog'oz yaratilish texnologiyasi quyidagicha bo'lgan, sellyuloza xom ashyosi bilan to'yingan xom ashyoni hasharotlar yaxshilab chaynaydi va yopishqoq, oqsilga boy tupurik bilan namlaydi. Ari tupurigi tolani namlashdan tashqari, suv o'tkazmas xususiyatni beradi. Shundan so’ng yumshatilgan tolali massa quriydi va yorug’, mustahkam qog'ozga aylanadi.

Tsay Lun ixtirosidan so'ng, qog'oz ishlab chiqarish jarayoni tez sur'atlar bilan yanada takomillashib bordi. Qog’oz sifatini oshirish uchun kraxmal, yelim, tabiiy bo'yoqlar va boshqalar qo'shila boshlandi.

Qog'oz tayyorlash usuli VII asrning boshlarida Koreya va Yaponiyada ma'lum bo'ldi. 150 yil o'tgach esa, u harbiy asirlar orqali arab mamlakatida keng tarqaldi.

Bosma dastgoh

Ko'plab ixtirolar singari, bosma dastgohni XIV asrning 30 yillarida Iogan Gutenberg mavjud texnologiyalarni shunchaki takomillashtirib, foydalanish uchun samarali qilib ommalashtirdi. Dunyoda allaqachon qog'oz va blokli bosmadan foydalanib kelgan - xitoyliklar XI asrning boshlarida bu ishni uddalay olgan - ammo ularning murakkab tili bosma texnologiyaning tarqalishiga imkon bermadi. Shunga qaramay, Marko Polo o’z sayohatlari orqali bu g'oyani Yevropaga 1295 yilda olib kelishga muvaffaq bo’lgan edi.


Gutenberg blokli bosma g'oyasini vintli press (sharob va zaytun moyi ishlab chiqarishda ishlatiladi) bilan birlashtirdi. U shuningdek, yog'ochga harf tushirishdan ko’ra ancha chidamli va ishlab chiqarish osonroq bo'lgan metall bosma bloklarni ishlab chiqdi. Nihoyat, siyoh va qog'oz ishlab chiqarishdagi taraqqiyot ommaviy bosib chiqarish jarayonini inqilob darajasiga olib chiqishga yordam berdi.

Shunday qilib, bosma dastgoh bilimlarni tez va keng tarqalishiga yordam berdi. Ixtiro tufayli 1500 yilga kelib G'arbiy Evropada 20 million kitob chop etildi.

Bug'  dvigateli

Bug 'dvigateli ixtiro qilinishidan oldin, mahsulotlarning aksariyati qo'l mehnati orqali yaratilgan. O’rta asrlargacha suv g'ildiraklari va plug tortuvchi qoramollar sanoat va qishloq xo’jaligining yagona quvvatlari edi. Sivilizatsiya tarixidagi qisqa vaqt ichida ro'y bergan eng katta o'zgarishlardan biri bo'lgan sanoat inqilobi bug 'dvigateli tufayli oldinga siljidi.


Bug'dan mashinalarni quvvatlantirish uchun foydalanish g'oyasi ming yillar oldin paydo bo'lgan, ammo 1712 yilda Tomas Nyukomen bu energiyani birinchi bo’lib, foydali ish (ko'p hollarda shaxtalardan suvni tortib chiqish) uchun ishlatgan. 1769 yilda Jeyms Vatt Nyukomenning dvigatelini modifikatsiyalab, unga alohida kondensator qo'shdi. Bu esa bug ' dvigatelining kuchini sezilarli darajada oshirib, undan yanada samarali foydalanish imkoniyatini yaratdi. Shuningdek, Jeyms Vatt dvigatel yordamida natijadorlikni oshiruvchi aylanma harakatlanish usulini ishlab chiqdi. Shu tariqa, Vatt bug' dvigatelining ixtirochisiga aylandi.

Nyukomen va Vatt dvigatellari porshenni harakatga keltirish uchun kengaytirilgan bug' bosimini emas, balki quyultirilgan bug' vakuumini ishlatishgan. Shu sababli dvigatellar katta hajmda bo’lgan. Keyinchalik Richard Trevitik va boshqalar izlanishlar natijasida yuqori bosimli bug' dvigatellarini poyezdga sig'adigan ixcham qilib yaratishdi. Bug' dvigatellari nafaqat fabrikalarda mahsulotlarning tezkor ishlab chiqarilishini ta'minlabgina qolmay, balki butun dunyo bo'ylab yuklarni tashiydigan parovoz lokomotivlari va katerlarga o'rnatila boshlandi.

Transport va energetika sohasida bug' dvigatelini asta-sekin elektr dvigateli va ichki yonish dvigateli siqib chiqargan bo'lsa-da, bu g'oya hayotda hali ham o'z amaliyligini topmoqda. Dunyodagi ko'pgina elektr stantsiyalari aslida elektr energiyasini ko'mir, tabiiy gaz yoki yadro reaktorini yoqish natijasida bug’ harorati oshuvchi bug'  turbinalari yordamida ishlab chiqaradi. Demak, murakkab qurilmalar texnologiyasi zamirida oddiy ixtirolar yotadi. Buni bug' dvigateli texnologiyasi misoli sifatida yaqqol ko'rish mumkin.

Mediateka
YANGILIKLARGA OBUNA BO'LING!