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100011, Toshkent shahri, Xadra mavzesi, 33
+ (998 71) 232-50-42
Ishonch telefonlari:
+ (998 71) 232-50-54

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2000 mingdan ortiq yaratmani patentlagan ixtirochi

2000 mingdan ortiq yaratmani patentlagan ixtirochi

Edison, Tomas Alva (1847-1931) - 1847 yil 11-fevralda Maylan (Ogayo shtati)da Gollandiyadan kelgan muhojirlar oilasida tug'ilgan. Uning otasining kichkina yog’och plastinalar ishlab chiqarish fabrikasi bor edi. Onasi maktabda o'qituvchi bo'lib ishlagan. Tomas yetti yoshga to’lgach, oilasi Michigan shtatidagi Port-Guronga ko'chib o'tadi va u maktabda o’qiy boshlaydi. Ammo tez orada Tomas maktabdan olib chiqiladi, chunki o'qituvchisi uni "hech qachon hech narsaga erisha olmaydigan" bo'sh boshli xayolparast deb hisoblar edi. Shundan so'ng onasi uni uyda o'qitishni boshlaydi. Ammo hayot unga katta mo’jizalar tayyorlab qo’ygan edi.

12 yoshida Tomas Port-Guronni Detroyt bilan bog’lovchi temir yo'li poezdida gazeta va konfet sotuvchisi bo'lib ishlaydi. Bir marta u temir yo'l stansiyasi boshlig'ining uch yoshli o'g'lini qutqarib qoladi. Buning uchun unga telegrafdan qanday foydalanishni o'rgatdi. Natijada Tomas telegraf operatoriga aylanadi. Ammo u qayerda ishlagan bo'lmasin, uning hayoli doimo tajribalar bilan band edi. U deyarli barcha pullarini tajribalar uchun ilmiy kitoblar va kimyoviy moddalarga sarflar edi. Shu bilan birga uyining yerto’lasida kimyoviy laboratoriya ochgan edi.

Tomas o’z iqtidorini juda erta namoyon etadi. 1868 yil 11 oktyabrda ovozlar sonini elektr qayd etuvchi uskuna uchun patent oladi. Keyingi ixtiro yanada qiziqarli bo’lib, birja sohasida juda as qotgan. Qurilma telegraf apparati yordamida valyuta kurslari to'g'risida ma'lumot uzatishga imkonini bergan. Ushbu ixtironi sotish orqali Edison dastlabki yirik foyda 40 ming dollarni ishlab topadi. Pul pulni topadi deganlaridek, Edison izlanishdan to’xtamadi va 1870 yilda Nyuarkda (Nyu-Jersi) ustaxona tashkil qilib, u yerda avtomatik telegraflar va boshqa elektr jihozlarini ishlab chiqarishga kirishadi.


Edison deyarli bir vaqtda Aleksandr Bellni o’ylantirgan muammo multipleks telegraf bilan shug'ullangan. Keyinchalik dupleks va kvadrupleks tizimini, 1875 yilda esa sentapleksli telegrafni ishlab chiqqan. 1875 yilda Edison termion emissiya fenomenini (Edison effekti) kashf etadi. Yaratma elektro vakuum qurilmalari (birinchi navbatda radio lampalar) va termoelektron generatorlarni yaratishda katta ahamiyatga ega bo’ladi.

Bir yil o'tgach, u Menlo Parkda (Nyu-Jersi) katta laboratoriyani tashkil qiladi va ko'plab ixtirolarni yaratadi: Bell telefon apparatining mikrofonini takomillashtiradi (1876), quyosh nurlari faolligini o'lchaydigan asbob ixtiro qiladi, birinchi fonografni yaratadi (1877). Gazetalar fonografni "asrning eng katta kashfiyoti" deb e'lon qiladi va Edisonning o'zi undan foydalanishda ko'plab usullarni - stenografning yordamisiz xat va hujjatlarni diktant qilish, musiqani ijro etish, suhbatlarni yozib olish (telefon bilan birgalikda)ni taklif qiladi.

1878 yilda Edison elektr yoritish muammosiga murojaat qiladi va bir yil ichida lampa cho’g’i uchun material topish uchun 6 mingdan ortiq tajriba o'tkazadi. 1879 yilda uglerod tolali lampani yaratadi hamda unga moslab patron, sokolni konstruksiyalaydi.

Edison juda kuchli elektr generatorini yaratdi va Nyu-Yorkda bir vaqtning o’zida yorug'lik va boshqa ehtiyojlar uchun elektr energiyasini yetkazib beruvchi keng tarmoqli dunyodagi birinchi markaziy issiqlik elektr stantsiyasining qurilishida qatnashadi.

Bundan tashqari, Edison gidroksidli temir-nikelli akkumulyator, saqlagich, aylanuvchi qulf, megafonni ixtiro qiladi.

1891 yilda Edison harakatlanuvchi predmetlarni fotosuratlarini namoyish qilish uchun mo'ljallangan kinetoskopga patent oladi.

Izlanishdan to’xtamaydigan Edison T.Armat ixtiro qilgan proyektor patentini sotib oladi. U orqali 1896 yil 23 aprelda Nyu-Yorkda birinchi marta ommaviy kinofilmni namoyish qiladi va 1913 yilda esa sinxronlashtirilgan ovoz hamrohligida kinofilmni taqdim etadi.

Birinchi jahon urushi paytida Edison AQSh dengiz kuchlarining maslahat kengashiga rahbarlik qildi. U ilgari Germaniyadan olib kelingan dorilar, bo'yoqlar va boshqa materiallarni yaratishda ishtirok etdi, sintetik fenol va portlovchi moddalarni ishlab chiqarish uchun zarur bo'lgan ko'mirni distillashning suyuq mahsulotlarini olish jarayonini ishlab chiqdi.


Tomas oliy ma'lumotga ega bo'lmagani uchun ko'pchilik uning ishlanmalariga ishonmasdi. Sababi u bajarayotgan izlanishlar fan va nazariyada isbotga ega emas edi. Bir tarafdan uning oliy ma'lumotga ega bo'lmagani balki o'ziga foyda bo'lgandir.

Shuni ta'kidlash kerakki, uning ko'pgina izlanishlari yaratilgan narsalarning takomillashgan varianti bo'lgan. 

Shunga qaramay, o'zining katta yoshiga qaramay, Edison ko'p soatlab ishda bo'lib, simsiz telegraf, radio, elektr energiyasi uskunalarini, kinoteatrlarni, avtoulovlarni va samolyotlarni takomillashtirgan. Umuman olganda, Edison hayoti davomida 2000 dan ortiq ixtirolarni patentlaydi.

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