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100011, Toshkent shahri, Xadra mavzesi, 33
+ (998 71) 232-50-42
Ishonch telefonlari:
+ (998 71) 232-50-54

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            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 5
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 1
            [IS_PARENT] => 1
        )

    [52] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Manzil
            [LINK] => /uz/contacts/manzil/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 0
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [53] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => O'tish sxemasi
            [LINK] => /uz/contacts/otish-sxemasi/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 1
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [54] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Ishonch telefoni
            [LINK] => /uz/feedback/ishonch-telefonlari/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 2
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [55] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Yagona telefon xizmati
            [LINK] => /uz/feedback/yagona-telefon-xizmati/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 3
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [56] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Murojaatlar statistikasi
            [LINK] => /uz/feedback/murojaatlar-statistikasi/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 4
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [57] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Apelyatsiyani ko'rib chiqish tartibi
            [LINK] => /uz/feedback/apellyatsiyani-ko-rib-chiqish-tartibi
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 5
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [58] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Jismоniy vа yuridik shахslаrni qаbul qilish jadvali
            [LINK] => /uz/feedback/jismoniy-va-yuridik-shakhslarni-qabul-qilish-jadvali/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 6
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [59] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Agentlikka murojaat yuborish
            [LINK] => https://pm.gov.uz/oz#/authorities/4/35/_apply 
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => Z
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 7
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [60] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Axborot xizmati
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 6
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 1
            [IS_PARENT] => 1
        )

    [61] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Rahbariyatning chiqish va bayonnomalari
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/rahbariyatning-chiqish-va-bayonnomalari/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 0
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [62] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Media reja va Press-relizlar
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/media-reja/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 1
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [63] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => E’lonlar, konkurslar va tenderlar
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/elonlar-konkurslar-va-tenderlar/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 2
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [64] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => OAV vakillarini akkreditasiyadan o’tkazish
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/oav-vakillarini-akkreditasiyadan-o-tkazish
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 3
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [65] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Agentlik nashrlari
            [LINK] => /uz/nashrlar/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 4
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [66] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Foto va video galereya
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/foto-va-video-galereya/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 5
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [67] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Axborot xizmati bilan bog’lanish
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/axborot-xizmati-bilan-bog-lanish/
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 6
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [68] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Agentlik faoliyatiga doir idoraviy hujjatlar
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/agentlik-faoliyatiga-doir-idoraviy-hujjatlar
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 7
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

    [69] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => So'ragan edingiz
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/so-ragan-edingiz
            [SELECTED] => 
            [PERMISSION] => R
            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
                (
                )

            [ITEM_TYPE] => P
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 8
            [PARAMS] => Array
                (
                )

            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
            [IS_PARENT] => 
        )

)


Tasodifan yaratilgan ixtirolar (2-qism)

Tasodifan yaratilgan ixtirolar (2-qism)

Bugungi kunda zamonaviy texnologiyalar turmush tarzimizni yengillashtirishda katta xizmat qilmoqda. Ammo barcha uskunalar hamma maqsadli yaratilmagan aksincha tasodifan kashf etilgan. Ular bilan tanishish balki Sizni ham biron kashfiyotga qo’l urishga undashi mumkin...

Rezina



1844 yilda ixtirochi Charlz Gudyer tasodifan issiqda yumshamaydigan va sovuqda mo'rt bo'lmaydigan kauchuk yasash retseptini o'ylab topdi. Yangi texnologiya vulkanizatsiya deb nom oldi. Ko'p yillar davomida juda injiq va noqulay material kauchukning sifatini yaxshilashga urinib yurgan Gudyer tasodifan pechkada kauchuk va oltingugurt aralashmasini qizdirdi. Kauchukni vulkanizatsiya qilish jarayonining ochilishi elektrotexnika sanoatining rivojlanishiga turtki bo'ldi, chunki kauchuk mukammal izolyatsion materialdir. Shunday qilib, Gudyer ixtirosi zamonaviy avtomobilning paydo bo'lishiga imkon berdi.

Elektron yurak stimulyatori



Yurak kasalliklaridan azob chekuvchi millionlab odamlarning hayotini saqlab qolgan ushbu qurilma ham tasodifan ixtiro qilingan. 1941 yilda muhandis Jon Hopps dengiz floti talabiga binoan gipotermiya sohasida tadqiqotlar olib boradi. Unga uzoq vaqtdan beri sovuq yoki sovuq suvda bo'lgan odamni iloji boricha tezroq isitish usulini topish vazifasi yuklangan edi. Hopps isinish uchun yuqori chastotali radio emissiya usulidan foydalanishga harakat qildi va tasodifan gipotermiya natijasida urishni to'xtatgan yurak elektr impulslari bilan qo'zg'atilsa, yana «ishga tushishi» mumkinligini aniqladi. 1950 yilda Hopps kashfiyoti asosida birinchi elektron yurak stimulyatori yaratildi. Dastlab u katta va noqulay edi, uni ishlatish ba'zida bemorning tanasida kuyishlar paydo bo'lishiga olib keldi. Shifokor Uilson Greytbetch ikkinchi tasodifiy ochilishni amalga oshirdi. U yurak ritmini qayd etuvchi qurilma ustida izlanish olib borgan. Bir kuni u tasodifan noto'g'ri rezistorni qurilmaga kiritadi va elektr zanjirida odam yuragining ritmiga o'xshash tebranishlar paydo bo'lishini payqaydi. Ikki yil o'tgach, Greytbetch yurak funksiyasini rag'batlantirish uchun sun'iy impulslarni yetkazib beradigan ilk elektron yurak stimulyatorini yaratdi.

Antibiotiklar



1928 yilda olim  Aleksandr Fleming penitsillin mog'orlari ochiq derazada qoldirgan namunalaridan birini patogen staf bakteriyalari bilan yuqtirganligini payqaydi. Fleming namunani mikroskop ostida ko'rib chiqadi va mog'or bakteriyalarni o'ldirayotganini payqaydi. Fleming kashfiyotining ahamiyati faqatgina 1940 yilda dunyoda yangi turdagi antibiotiklarni ommaviy ravishda o'rganish boshlanganida aniq bo'ldi. Hozirgi kunda antibiotiklar tibbiyotda keng qo'llaniladi, ular dunyoda sotiladigan barcha dorilarning 15 foizini tashkil qiladi.

Manbaa: relax.wild-mistress.ru

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