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            [LINK] => https://pm.gov.uz/oz#/authorities/4/35/_apply 
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            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/rahbariyatning-chiqish-va-bayonnomalari/
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Rossiyalik olimlar kosmik sovutkichni ixtiro qildilar

15.10.2018
Rossiyalik  olimlar kosmik sovutkichni ixtiro qildilar

Kosmik kemalar qoplamasi orbitada juda ulkan bosim ostida qoladi, bir vaqtning o'zida esa asbob-uskunalar va ekipajni kosmik muhit sovug'idan saqlash uchun kemaning ichidagi haroratni bir maromda saqlab turish talab etiladi. Odatda, kemani isitish uchun ham, sovutish uchun ham bitta suyuq holdagi issiqlik tashuvchidan foydalaniladi, undan turli sikllarda foydalanish imkoniyatini esa maxsus kosmik sovutkich ta'minlab beradi.
Bu kabi qurilmalarning ishlash prinsipi umumiy tarzda olganda quyidagi ko'rinishda bo'ladi: kosmik sovutkich yordamida kosmik kemaning hayotini ta'minlash tizimidan suyuq issiqlik tashuvchi to'planadi va mayda tomchilar ko'rinishida sochib yuboriladi, bu tomchilar kosmik fazoda tabiiy tarzda soviydi. Keyin sovutilgan tomchilar "kosmik sovutkich" yordamida yig'iladi va sovutish tizimiga kiritiladi, ishlov berilgach esa yana qayta kemada hayotni ta'minlash tizimiga qaytariladi, shu tariqa qurilmada va uning bo'lmalarida kerakli harorat ta'minlanadi.
Lekin bugungi kungacha foydalanib kelinayotgan bu kabi sovutish tizimlarini yaratishda ayrim jiddiy konstruktiv kamchiliklar ham mavjud edi. Masalan, issiqlik tashuvchining tomchilarini "sovutkich"ga qaytarib haydash uchun ularning birida qo'shimcha ravishda murakkab konstruksiyali elektrodlar yaratish talab etiladi. Ikkinchisining ishlashi uchun esa qo'shimcha ravishda ijobiy zaryadlangan zarralar manbai bo'lgan konstruksiyalar talab etiladi. Uchinchisida esa massalarning qaytmas ortiqcha sarfi muammosi (issiqlik tashuvchi tomilariga purkaladigan gazni ortiqsa sarflash) mavjud bo'lgani holda, ustiga-ustak massani purkash uchun qurilmani yaratish ehtiyoji ham bor. To'rtinchisida issiqlik tashuvchida erigan gaz massasini tiklab bo'lmaydigan darajada sarflash muammosi mavjud, chunki fazoga tarqab ketgan gazni tiklash imkoni yo'q, shuningdek, qo'shimcha ravishda "sovutkich"ni issiqlik tashuvchini gaz bilan to'yintirish moslamasi bilan ham ta'minlash talab etiladi.
Ushbu barcha qiyinchiliklar sababi - issiqlik tashuvchi tomchilarining kosmik fazoda turli omillar hisobiga statik, odatda, manfiy zaryadlanishidir. Manfiy zaryadlar yig'ilishi ana shu zaryadlarning elektrostatik kuchlari itarilishidan yuzaga keladi, oqibatda tomchilar muayyan harakatlanish traektoriyasidan chiqadi va ularning to'planish zonasiga tushishi qiyinlashadi.
Bu muammoning yechimi ...oddiygina ultrabinafsha nurlari yordamida topildi. Ma'lum bo'lishicha, sochib yuborilgan tomchilarga ultrabinafsha nur oqimi bilan ta'sir qilinganda ularning yuzasida sirtqi fotoeffekt - fotoelektron emissiya, ya'ni UF nuri ta'siri ostida elektronlar tarqalishi yuz beradi. Bu o'rinda UF nuri manbat sifatida eksimer lampadan foydalaniladi. Elektronlar tarqalishi hisobiga tomchilardagi manfiy zaryadlanish kamayadi, shu boisdan tezlatib ishlatish plastinalar ta'siri ostida tomchilar oqimi muayyan harakatlanish traektoriyasidan chetga chiqmaydi, bu esa o'z o'rnida sovutilgan issiqlik tashuvchini yig'ish samaradorligini bir necha barobarga oshiradi, shuningdek, massaning qaytmas ortiqcha sarfini kamaytiradi.

_______________________
Rossiya Intellektual mulk Federal xizmati ("Rospatent") tomonidan berilgan 2668386- raqamli patent.
Mualliflar: Ivan Zavyalov, Sergey Negodyaev, Natalya Zavyalova, Ilya Mixaylov, Igor Shashin, Sergey Avtaykin, Andrey Safronov, Aleksey Grigorev.

Patent egasi: Rossiya Federasiyasi nomidan ish ko'ruvchi "Roskosmos" Davlat kosmik faoliyat
korporasiyasi

Manbaa: https://www.popmech.ru

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