Hajm:
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Oddiy ko'rinish
Qidirish
Bizning manzil:
100000, Toshkent shahri, Mustaqillik shox ko'chasi, 59
Ishonch telefonlari:
1008 yoki
+ (998 71) 232-50-50

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    [54] => Array
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            [TEXT] => Murojaatlar statistikasi
            [LINK] => /uz/feedback/murojaatlar-statistikasi/
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    [55] => Array
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            [TEXT] => Apelyatsiyani ko'rib chiqish tartibi
            [LINK] => /uz/feedback/apellyatsiyani-ko-rib-chiqish-tartibi
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    [56] => Array
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            [TEXT] => Jismоniy vа yuridik shахslаrni qаbul qilish jadvali
            [LINK] => /uz/feedback/jismoniy-va-yuridik-shakhslarni-qabul-qilish-jadvali/
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            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
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            [TEXT] => Agentlikka murojaat yuborish
            [LINK] => https://pm.gov.uz/oz#/authorities/4/35/_apply 
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    [58] => Array
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            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/
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            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
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    [59] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Rahbariyatning chiqish va bayonnomalari
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/rahbariyatning-chiqish-va-bayonnomalari/
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            [PERMISSION] => R
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            [ITEM_TYPE] => D
            [ITEM_INDEX] => 0
            [PARAMS] => Array
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            [DEPTH_LEVEL] => 2
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    [60] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => Media reja va Press-relizlar
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/media-reja/
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    [61] => Array
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            [TEXT] => E’lonlar, konkurslar va tenderlar
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/elonlar-konkurslar-va-tenderlar/
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    [62] => Array
        (
            [TEXT] => OAV vakillarini akkreditasiyadan o’tkazish
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/oav-vakillarini-akkreditasiyadan-o-tkazish
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            [TEXT] => Foto va video galereya
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/foto-va-video-galereya/
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        (
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            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/axborot-xizmati-bilan-bog-lanish/
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            [ADDITIONAL_LINKS] => Array
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                )

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                )

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        (
            [TEXT] => Agentlik faoliyatiga doir idoraviy hujjatlar
            [LINK] => /uz/exhibition/agentlik-faoliyatiga-doir-idoraviy-hujjatlar
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Oʼzbekiston Respublikasi Vazirlar Mahkamasining 2020 yil 23 martdagi “Koronavirus infeksiyasi tarqalishiga qarshi qoʼshimcha chora-tadbirlar toʼgʼrisida”gi qaroriga muvofiq Аdliya vazirligi huzuridagi Intellektual mulk agentligi xodimlari masofadan turib ishni tashkil etishgan. Agentlikka murojaat qiluvchi fuqarolar kerakli bo’limni tanlab bog’lanishlari mumkin.

7 fevral — yongʼinga qarshi ilk vosita patentlangan kun

07.02.2020
7 fevral — yongʼinga qarshi ilk vosita patentlangan kun

Qadim zamonlardan beri yong'inlar insoniyatga kulfat keltirib, inson hayoti va mulkiga tahdid solgan. Ammo o'sha og'ir damlarda ham odamlar yong'inga qarshi kurash usullari va imkoniyatlarini izlashdan to'xtamadilar. Va nihoyat taxminan uch yuz yil oldin dunyoda birinchi o't o'chirgich yaratildi.

O’t o’chiruvchi dastlabki vositalar


Birinchi yong'in o’chiruvchi vosita Germaniyada taxminan 1715 yilda Zaxariya Greyl tomonidan ixtiro qilingan. Yaratma 20 litr suv bilan to'ldirilgan, shuningdek oz miqdordagi porox va zapal bilan jihozlangan yog'och bochka edi. Yong'inga qarshi vosita ishlash prinsipi quyidagicha bo’lgan, suv to’ldirilgan va porox zaryadli yog’och bochka olov tomonga dumalatilardi. Natijada bochka portlardi va suv olovni o'chirishga yordam berardi. Angliyada shunga o'xshash qurilma esa 1723 yilda kimyogar Ambrouz Godfri tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan.


Ma'lumotlarga ko'ra, nemis shifokori M. Fushes 1734 yilda shisha idish va tuzli eritmadan yong'inga qarshi vosita yaratib, uni o'chirish uchun suyuqlik bilan to'ldirilgan bankani olovga tashlash kifoya qilishini aytadi.


Oradan bir asr o'tgach, 1816 yilda Angliyada ingliz ixtirochisi Jorj Menbi birinchi avtomatik yong'in o'chirgichni yaratdi. Ixtiro siqilgan havo bosimi ostida ishqorli suv bilan to'ldirilgan silindrsimon metall idishdan iborat edi. Idishning umumiy hajmi 24 litr bo’lib, maxsus tepkini bosish orqali suv tashqariga otilgan.



Kimyoviy o’t o’chirgich

1846 yilda muhandis Kyun yong'inlarni o'chirish uchun kimyoviy tarkibiga oltingugurt, selitra va ko'mir kiruvchi g'ayrioddiy qurilmadan foydalanishni taklif qildi.


Ushbu kompozitsiyaning o'ziga xosligi yuqori harorat ta'sirida yong’in manbaini pasayishiga olib keladigan bug'larning shakllanishi edi. Izlanishlar davom etdi va 1898 yilda N.B. Shefal yuqori samaradorlik va parchalanish vaqtini qisqartirish uchun bikarbonat soda, kvas va ammoniy sulfatdan iborat o't o'chirish aralashmasini yaratdi.

Ilk patentlangan o’t o’chirgich

Amerikalik muhandis Alan Krey 1863 yil fevral oyida birinchi yong'in so’ndiruvchi vositani patentladi. Qurilmada suv to’ldirgichdan foydalanilgan. Amalda, ushbu qurilmaning samaradorligi juda past bo’lib, ko'pincha yong'indan himoyalanishni nazarda tutardi.

XX asr boshlarida Rossiyada yangi yong'inga qarshi ko'pikli vosita paydo bo’lishi vaziyatni tubdan o'zgartirdi. Ushbu kashfiyot global ahamiyatga ega edi va barcha ilg'or mamlakatlar ilmiy jamoatchiligi va matbuoti tomonidan tan olindi.

1904 yilda Boku gimnaziyasining fizika o'qituvchisi Aleksandr Loranning taklifiga binoan o’t o’chirishda suv o’z o’rnini ko’pikli aralashmasiga bo’shatdi. Bir necha kun davomida neft konida sodir bo'lgan yong'inning guvohi bo'gan Loran o't o'chiruvchilarning ojizligini ko'rdi. Shundan so’ng u yonayotgan neftni ko'pik bilan o'chirish bo'yicha tajribalar o'tkazdi. Tajribalar asosida havo-mexanik ko'pik yaratish va ixcham Evrika yong'in o'chirish moslamasini patentladi. Qurilma 1905 yil may oyida Sankt-Peterburgda rasmiy ravishda sinovdan o'tkazildi.

Afsuski, rossiyalik ixtirochining patenti Rossiyada qo’llanilmadi va keyinchalik Germaniyada ilk ko'pikli o't o'chiruvchi Perkeo modelidagi nemis kompaniyasiga sotildi.


Loranning kashfiyoti butun dunyo uchun katta ahamiyatga ega edi. Uning ixtirosi tufayli yonuvchan suyuqlik olovini o'chirish vositasi sifatida kimyoviy va havo-mexanik ko'pikdan keng foydalanish ommalashdi.

Mazkur ixtirolar zamonaviy o’t o’chiruvchi vositalarning asosi hisoblanib, ular tufayli yong’inni tez va samarali o’chirish imkoni paydo bo’ldi.

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